Gondwana Fits

Mostly based on hotspot (Müller et al. 1993) and magnetic anomalies (Müller et al. 1997) unless noted.  Africa in the text apply to South Africa.  *.sdv files are interpolated Euler rotation files (1 Ma interval) produced from *.a97 files.  All files are located in c:\gmap\SdvLibrary    

 

CONTINENT

DESCRIPTION

'South' Africa vs. North America

 

Hotspot model between 0-130 Ma (Müller et al. 1993) and magnetic anomaly fits back to 175 Ma (Müller et al. 1997).  This is the tightest fit we use since the Lottes & Rowley (1990) Pangea fit is less tight.  Rotation files are named AfricaVsNam (extension .a97 and .sdv)

South America vs. Africa

 

Rotated to Africa using hotspot model for < 130 Ma (Müller et al. 1993).  130 Ma relative fits is very similar to Lottes and Rowley (1990) but we have added their fit for 250 Ma and interpolated between 250-130 Ma (small changes).  Rotation files are named SamVsAfrica (.a97 and .sdv).

Madagascar vs. Africa

 

Hotspot model at 130-118 Ma (Müller et al. 1993); then rotated to Africa using magnetic anomaly model of Müller et al. (1997).  Rotation files named MadVsAfrica (.a97 and .sdv).

India vs. Africa

 

Hotspot model at 130-0 Ma (Müller et al. 1993); older rotated to Africa using magnetic anomaly model as for Madagascar.   Rotation files named IndiaVsAfrica (.a97 and .sdv).

Seychelles vs. Africa

 

Rotated to India according to Torsvik et al. (2001); then we use India model above until c. 60 Ma when Seychelles separates from India and becomes part of the African plate.

Arabia vs. Africa

 

Rotated to Africa using magnetic anomaly model of Müller et al. (1997).  Rotation files named ArabiaVsAfrica (.a97 and .sdv)

East Antarctica vs. Africa

 

Rotated to Africa using hotspots (Müller et al. 1993) 0-130 Ma and magnetic anomalies to 165 Ma (Müller et al. 1997).  Rotation files named AntVsAfrica (.a97 and .sdv).

Australia vs. Africa

 

Rotated first to Australia using hotspot model (Müller et al. 1993) and then magnetic anomalies Ant-Africa to 165 Ma (Müller et al. 1997).  Rotation files named AusVsAfrica (.a97 and .sdv).

South Africa vs. NW Africa

 

Lottes & Rowley (1990) fit for >=130 Ma.  Transitional fit between 130-100.  Rotation files named SAfricaVsNWAfrica (.a97 and .sdv).

NE Africa vs. NW Africa

Lottes & Rowley (1990) fit for >=130 Ma.  Transitional fit between 130-100.  Rotation files named NEAfricaVsNWAfrica (.a97 and .sdv).